Pyroluria (originally known as malvaria) is a genetic abnormality in hemoglobin synthesis resulting in a deficiency of zinc and vitamin B6. People with pyroluria produce excess
amounts of a byproduct from hemoglobin synthesis, called OHHPL (hydroxyhemoppyrrolin-2-one). In these people an excess amount of pyrrole is found in
the urine. Associated changes
in fatty acid metabolism lead to low levels of arachidonic acid (an omega-6
fatty acid). The presence of pyroluria can have a profound effect on mental
and physical health and was first discovered in relation to schizophrenia.
Pyroluria incidence in different subgroups.
| Bipolar Disorder
| General population
Common emotional and physical characteristics of pyroluria.
- Little or no dream recall
- White spots on finger nails
- Poor morning appetite and/or tendency to skip breakfast
- Morning nausea
- Pale skin, poor tanning or burn easy in sun
- Sensitivity to bright light
- Hypersensitive to loud noises
- Reading difficulties (e.g. dyslexia)
- Histrionic (dramatic)
- Argumentative/enjoy argument
- Mood swings or temper outbursts
- Much higher capability & alertness in the evening, compared to mornings
- Preference for spicy or heavily flavored foods
- Abnormal body fat distribution
- Significant growth after the age of 16
- Pyroluria: Hidden Cause of Schizophrenia, Bipolar, Depression, and Anxiety Symptoms by Woody McGinnis, M.D.
- Commentary on Nutritional Treatment of Mental Disorders: Pyrrole Disorder by Willam Walsh, Ph.D.
by Carl C. Pfeiffer, Ph.D., M.D.
by Jeremy E. Kaslow, M.D., F.A.C.P., F.A.C.A.A.I.
- The Analyst:
Laboratories which test for pyroluria:
Laboratory (Wichita, KS, USA)
- Biolab Medical Unit (London,
- Direct Healthcare Access, Inc. (Mount Prospect, IL, USA)
- Great Plains
Laboratory (Lenexa, KS, USA)
- Klinisch Ecologisch Allergie
Centrum (Weert, Netherlands)
- S.A.F.E. Analytical
Laboratories (Gold Coast, Australia)
- Vitamin Diagnostics (New Jersey, USA)
Related research in chronological order:
- The Relationship Between an Unknown Factor (US) in the Urine of Subjects
and HOD Test Results. J Neuropsychiatry 2:363-368, 1961. (by Abram
Hoffer MD, PhD & Humphry Osmond, M.D.)
- The Presence of Unidentified Substances in the Urine of Psychiatric Patients
2:331-362, 1961 (by Abram Hoffer M.D, PhD, et al)
- The Presence of Malvaria in Some Mentally Retarded Children. Amer J
Ment Def 67:730-732, 1963. (by Abram Hoffer M.D, PhD, et al)
- Malvaria: A New Psychiatric Disease. Acta Psychiat Scand 39:335-366,
1963. (by Abram Hoffer MD, PhD & Humphry Osmond, M.D.)
- Malvaria and the Law. Psychoso-matics, 7:303-310, 1966. (by Abram
Hoffer M.D, PhD, et al)
- Mauve spot and schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 125(6):849-851,
1968. Hey, girls, do you like replica handbags uk?
- Biochemical relationship between kryptopyrrole (mauve factor and trans-3-methyl-2-hexenoic
acid schizophrenia odor). Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1973 (by Carl Pfeiffer
MD, PhD, et al.)
- Studies on the occurrence of the mauve factor in schizophrenia [article
in Polish]. Psychiat. Pol., 7(2):153-9, 1973.
- Treatment of pyroluric schizophrenia (malvaria) with large doses of pyridoxine
and a dietary supplement of zinc. J. Orthomolecular Psychiatry3(4):292
1974 (by Carl Pfeiffer PhD, MD & Arthur Sohler PhD)
- A rapid screening test for pyroluria; useful in distinguishing a schizophrenic
subpopulation. J. Orthomolecular Psychiatry 1974 3(4):273 (by Arthur Sohler
and behavioral toxicity of kryptopyrrole in the rat., Pharmacol Biochem
Behav 3(2):243-50 1975
and Manganese in the Schizophrenias. J. Orthomolecular Psychiatry
12(3):215 1983 (by Carl Pfeiffer PhD, MD and Scott LaMola, BS)
new prostaglandin disturbance syndrome in schizophrenia: delta-6-pyroluria.,
Med Hypotheses 19(4):333-8 1986
- Pyroluria – Zinc and B6 deficiencies. Int Clin Nutr Rev 1988 (by Carl Pfeiffer
MD, PhD, et al.)
- The Discovery of Kryptopyrrole and its Importance in Diagnosis
of Biochemical Imbalances in Schizophrenia and in Criminal Behavior J.
Orthomolecular Medicine 10(1):3 1995 (by Abram Hoffer M.D, PhD)
- Fatty Acid
Profiles of Schizophrenic Phenotypes, 91st AOCS Annual Meeting
and Expo San Diego, California 2000 (by William Walsh PhD of the Pfeiffer Treatment Center)
- Urinary Pyrrole (Mauve Factor): Metric for Oxidative Stress in Behavioral
Disorders, presented to the Linus Pauling Institute, 2003 (by Woody R. McGinnis
Blake Graham, BSc (Honours), AACNEM
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